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Intermediate B1

This intensive course is for language learners striving toward the B1 level. The language of instruction is Portuguese. I will speak in English only if need be.

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My suggestion for these two weeks is to focus on*:

  • Conversation
  • Listening comprehension
  • Reading comprehension
  • Compound tenses (Ter auxiliary) / Personal Infinitive / Imperative Mood / Present Subjunctive
  • Prepositional usage

*There's always room to adjust the course according to the group's preferences:

After this course, you'll have come closer to the B1 level and have the tools and strategies to get there and beyond.

Not sure if you should enroll in the A2 or B1 course?

Take this placement test

Any questions?

Inquiry

Beginners A2

This intensive course is for language learners striving toward the A2 level. The language of instruction is English/Portuguese typically in a 30/70 ratio. (I always speak with you in Portuguese as much as possible.)

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My suggestion for these two weeks is to focus on:

  • Listening comprehension
  • Oral interaction
  • Past tense (Perfeito vs. Imperfeito)
  • Prepositional usage
  • Any other aspects according to your preferences as a group

After this course, you'll have come closer to the A2 level and gained the tools to take it further all by yourself.

Not sure if you should enroll in the A2 or B1 course?

Take this placement test

Any questions?

Inquiry

Beginners A1

This intensive course is for language learners striving toward the A1 level. The language of instruction is English/Portuguese typically in a 60/40 ratio. (I always speak with you in Portuguese as much as possible.)

If you've just started your learning journey, it may be that you will find this course a bit challenging. Nothing wrong with that. However, if you want to take it easy, consider enrolling for the Clean Slate A0 instead (if available).

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This is an all-round course, which means that we’ll work on all aspects of language learning according to the A1 level*:

  • Pronunciation
  • Listening comprehension
  • Reading comprehension
  • Conversation
  • Grammar

* There's always room to adjust the course according to your preferences as a group.

After this course, you'll have come closer to the A1 level and gained the tools to take it further all by yourself.

Not sure if you should enroll in the A1 or A2 course?

Take this placement test

Any questions?

Inquiry

Clean Slate A0

Geared toward Absolute Beginners, this course gives you a solid start and foundation to build upon. The language of instruction is almost entirely in English.

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This is an introductory course to the Portuguese language as spoken in Portugal. Throughout the course, we will focus on the Portuguese sound system and basic Portuguese grammar.

You will also learn how to introduce yourself and day-to-day, useful phrases. Finally, we will discuss learning resources and strategies to support your learning journey.

After the course, you will have a basic understanding of European Portuguese pronunciation and grammar. You will also be capable of engaging in simple, short oral interactions. Last but not least, you will be aware of a variety of learning resources and strategies to help you succeed at learning the language.

Any questions?

Inquiry

New dates covering the period Mar–Jun will soon be announced. Fill up this form and I will keep you posted.

Online Intensive Courses Upcoming
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Can't you attend any courses this season? Fill up this form and I will keep you posted on upcoming Intensive Courses.

In-person Intensive Courses Upcoming
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Surprise surprise!

Do you know what constipado means in Portuguese? Probably not what you are thinking...

Get a list of 50+ English-Portuguese False Friends and be surprised.

False Friends
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Forming the Plural in Portuguese

In Portuguese, not only nouns are spelled differently according to number (singular/plural), but also words belonging to other word classes such as adjectives, demonstratives, or possessive pronouns.

Thus, learning a few from-singular-to-plural conversion patterns is very helpful in that it helps you navigate the Portuguese word morphology (which is more intricate than other languages such as English).

Consider the singular and plural versions of the following sentence
(the words marked in blue are the words that change form to agree with the number of the noun they refer to. The words marked in red are the nouns themselves):

Singular
A minha querida prima foi ao café com a minha adorada tia .
My dear cousin went to the coffee house with my adored aunt.

Plural
As minhas queridas primas foram ao café com as minhas adoradas tias.
My dear cousins went to the coffee house with my adored aunts.

As it clearly stands out above, Portuguese has a more varied word morphology to accommodate changes in number (singular/plural) than English. This, on the other hand, poses a challenge for language learners to keep sentences number-aligned and make them look and sound right.

Luckily, there are a few conversion patterns that will make it easier.

One such pattern is called S-plural. Accordingly, nouns ending in vowels form their plural with an -s at the end. A few examples:

From SINGULARto PLURAL
o cabelo (hair)os cabelos (hairs)
a perna (leg)as pernas (legs)
a maçã (apple)as maçãs (apples)
o dente (tooth)os dentes (teeth)
o rei (king)os reis (kings / king and queen)
o pau (stick)os paus (sticks)
. . . 

If you want to dive deep into this and several other conversion patterns, I invite you to take a look at Module 3 of All-round Beginners A1.

Até breve, p

Tips! Gender and number go hand-in-hand and you may want to give this article a read as well:  Gender of Portuguese Words: A Guide to Masculine-to-Feminine Spelling Patterns.

Nouns –  singular-to-plural conversion patterns

S-plural

In Portuguese, just as in English, the s-plural is dominant. Accordingly, nouns ending in any vowel – -a, -e, -i, -o, -u (the nasal vowel included) – form their plural by adding an -s at the end. A few examples:

SINGULARPLURAL
o cabelo (hair)os cabelos (hairs)
a perna (leg)as pernas (legs)
a maçã (apple)as maçãs (apples)
o dente (tooth)os dentes (teeth)
o rei (king)os reis (kings / king and queen)
o pau (stick)os paus (sticks)
. . . 

eS-plural

This is a variation of the s-plural. Nouns ending with the consonants -n, -r, -s, and -z form their plural with -es. A few examples:

SINGULARPLURAL
o líquen (lichen)os líquenes (lichens)
o cantor (singer)os cantores (singers)
o gás (gas)os gases (gases)
a raíz (root)as raízes (roots)
. . . 

The reason for that extra e is that, in Portuguese, words don’t normally end in consonant clusters. There is, however, an exception to this, namely the plural-ending -ns that we’ll look at next.

Nouns ending in -m

Portuguese nouns ending in -m build their plural with -ns, that is, by replacing -m* with -n and adding an -s at the end:

SINGULARPLURAL
a viagem (travel)as viagens (travels)
a ordem (order)as ordens (orders)
o jovem (juvenile)os jovens (juveniles)
. . . 

*Note that both -m and -ns at the end of words produce a nasal sound. Portuguese is replete with these and other nasal sounds, for instance, nasal diphthongs (see the noun-group below). Learn more about Portuguese pronunciation: Portuguese pronunciation: a helpful guide to Portuguese basic sounds and spelling patterns.

Nouns ending in -ão

The majority of nouns ending in -ão form their plural with -ões (virtually all nouns referring to abstract concepts follow this pattern). However, some nouns ending in -ão will form their plural with -ães and -ãos:

SINGULARPLURAL
a divisão (division)as divisões (divisions)
a razão (reason)as razões (reasons)
o coração (heart)os corações (hearts)
o pão (bread)os pães (breads)
a mão (hand)as mãos (hands)
. . . 

! Have you noticed that Portuguese nouns ending in -ão and referring to abstract concepts often have English cognates? For instance, the word atenção (attention) or conclusão (conclusion). 

See, there is a wealth of English-Portuguese cognates that can exponentially increase your Portuguese vocabulary, in no time. Read the following article if you want to unleash these cognate-superpowers:  English-Portuguese cognates – the words you already know (without knowing it).

Nouns ending in -l

Nouns ending in -al, -el, -ol, and -ul form their plural by replacing those endings with -ais, -eis, -ois, and -uis respectively.

SINGULARPLURAL
o animal (animal)os animais (animals)
o automóvel (automobile)os automóveis (automobiles)
o rouxinol (nightingale)os rouxinóis (nightingales)
o azul (blue)os azuis (blues)
. . . 

However, the plural-forming pattern is slightly different for nouns ending in -il, that is, they form the plural with either -is or -eis depending if the word is stressed on the last or next-to-last syllable respectively*:

SINGULARPLURAL
o imbecil (imbecile)os imbecis (imbeciles)
o portátil (laptop)os portáteis (laptops)
. . . 

* Speaking of word stress, here’s a short article to help you master this topic: Portuguese word stress and accent marks.

Nouns ending in -s

Nouns ending in -s (there are only a few of these) share the same form in singular and plural. Here’re a couple of examples:

SINGULARPLURAL
o lápis (pencil)os lápis (pencils)
o cais (quay)os cais (quays)
. . . 

Extending the conversion patterns beyond nouns 

In Portuguese, word classes such as adjectives, determiners (articles, possessives, demonstratives), pronouns and verbs are subject to plural-inflection. Accordingly, their endings change form to conform to the number in relation to the nouns they refer to.

Apart from verbs and personal pronouns, these variable word classes follow, as we shall see below, the same plural-forming patterns we’ve gone through above. 

Adjectives

In Portuguese, unlike in English, adjectives adjust their endings to agree with the number of the noun they refer to. Again, they basically follow the same patterns as nouns do:

SINGULARPLURAL
vowel > s-plural
bonito (handsome)bonitos (handsome)
cara (expensive)idiotas (expensive)
grande (big)grandes (big)
r, s, z > es-plural
trabalhador (hard-working)trabalhadores (hard-working)
francês (French)franceses (French)
capaz (capable)capazes (capable)
ão > ões/ães
trapalhão (clumsy)trapalhões (clumsy)
alemão (German)alemães (German)
m > m
selvagem (wild)selvagens (wild)
l > is
essencial (essential)essenciais (essential)
cruel (cruel)crueis (cruel)
gentil (kind)gentis (kind)
ágil (agile)ágeis (agile)
azul (blue)azuis (blue)
s > s
simples (simple)simples (simple)
. . . 

Determiners

Determiners are those words introducing nouns. For instance, in the phrases the girl and those people, the article the and the demonstrative those are determiners. 

There are different types of determiners such as articles, demonstratives, possessives, and so on. In Portuguese, unlike in English, all determiners agree with the number of the noun they refer to. 

For the sake of clarity, note that the demonstratives and possessives listed below are considered pronouns if standing alone. Whether they show up in the quality of determiners or pronouns, demonstratives and possessives shall conform to number.

Articles

Besides conforming to gender (masculine/feminine), Portuguese articles also agree with the number: 

SINGULARPLURAL
definite articles, theo/a (m/f)

o livro (the book)
os/as

os livros (the books)
indefinite articles, aum/uma (m/f)

uma rua (a street)
(uns/umas)

ruas (streets)

Demonstratives

Demonstrative determiners are those words pointing out things and objects:

SINGULARPLURAL
this/theseeste/esta (m/f)

este prédio (this building)
estes/estas 

estes prédios (these buildings)
that/thoseesse/essa (m/f)

esse problema (that problem)
esses/essas (those)

esses problemas (those problems)
that over there / those over thereaquele/aquela (m/f)

aquela árvore (that tree over there)
aqueles/aquelas 

aquelas árvores (those trees over there)

Possessives

These determiners imply possession. Note that in Portuguese (especially in the European standard), you normally have a definite article accompanying the possessive:

SINGULARPLURAL
my
meu/minha (m/f)

o meu amor (my love)
meus/minhas

os meus amores (my loves)
your
teu/tuas (m/f)

a tua carteira (your purse)
teus/tuas

as tuas carteiras (your purses)
his / her
seu/sua (m/f)
more often dele/dela

a sua filha or a filha dele/dela  (his/her daughter)
seus/suas
more often dele/dela

as suas filhas or as filhas dele/dela (his/her daughters)
our
nosso/nossa (m/f)

a nossa casa (our home)
nossos/nossas

as nossas casas (our homes)
your

vosso/vossa (m/f)

o vosso primo (your cousin)
vossos/vossas

os vossos primos (your cousins)
their
seu/sua (m/f)more often deles/delas

o seu carro or o carro deles/delas (their car)
seus/suasmore often deles/delas

os seus carro or os carros deles/delas (their car)

Stay tuned for upcoming courses, reads, and other novelties.

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