Geared toward Absolute Beginners, this course gives you a solid start and foundation to build upon.
This is an introductory course to the Portuguese language as spoken in Portugal. Throughout the course, we will focus on the Portuguese sound system and basic Portuguese grammar.
You will also learn how to introduce yourself and day-to-day, useful phrases. Finally, we will discuss learning resources and strategies to support your learning journey.
After the course, you will have a basic understanding of European Portuguese pronunciation and grammar. You will also be capable of engaging in simple, short oral interactions. Last but not least, you will be aware of a variety of learning resources and strategies to help you succeed at learning the language.
I will keep you updated on upcoming course seasons
This intensive course is for language learners striving toward the A2 level.
In general, the Portuguese past participle is formed by replacing the suffixes –ar, -er, and -ir* of the infinitive verb forms with either –ado or –ido. Here’s an example for each of the 3 regular conjugation groups:
1st conjugation group (-ar)
2nd conjugation group(-er)
3rd conjugation group (-ir)
* Note that the verb pôr (put) and its derivatives (repor, transpor, impor, etc.) exceptionally end in -or, which deviates from all other verbs that end either in -ar, –er, or –ir.
Irregular past participles
Here are a few verbs with irregular past participles:
Some verbs have two past participle forms, one regular and the other irregular. The regular form is used in connection with the auxiliary verbs ter and haver, whereas the irregular one is used with ser or estar :
Regular participle ter/haver
Irregular participle ser/estar
Here’s an example with the verb eleger:
ter O povo tinhaelegido * o Marcelo para presidente em 2016. The people had elected Marcelo for president in 2016.
ser O Marcelo foi novamente eleito presidente agora em 2021. Marcelo was again elected president now in 2021.
* While textbooks continue to insist on the use of regular/irregular participles according to the principles stated above, in practice, you often hear people using the irregular form with ter/haver. For instance, if we were to rewrite the sentence above to O povo tinha eleito o Marcelo …, that wouldn’t hurt anyone’s ears (apart from those of a few puritans). There are, nonetheless, a few verbs (for example morrer or prender) where it would sound wrong. Stick to textbooks’ guidelines when in doubt.
Forming compound tenses (perfect tenses)
Compound tenses in Portuguese are formed with the auxiliary terfollowed by the past participle of the main verb:
Eu tenhofeito desporto todos os dias. (v. fazer) I’ve been working out every day.
A Lúcia tinha-seesquecido de tomar o comprimido. (v. esquecer-se) Lúcia had forgotten to take the medicine.
We can also use haver * instead of ter, especially in the imperfect tense:
A Lúcia havia-seesquecido de tomar o comprimido. Lúcia had forgotten to take the medicine.
* The use of haver as the auxiliary verb is somewhat more common in the Brazilian standard. Here’s a couple of reading suggestions to learn more about (1)haver and (2) how the Brazilian and European standards compare:
Past participles often act as adjectives when they follow linking verbs such as ser, estar, ficar, sentir-se, or andar. In that case, they agree in gender and number * regarding the noun they refer to:
Eu sou interessado em política. (v. interessar) I am generally interested in politics.
A Isabel está cansada.(v. cansar) Isabel is tired.
O Mário ficou ** surpreendido quando me viu. (v. surpreender) Mário was surprised when he saw me.
Sentimo-nos desanimados quando perdemos o jogo. (v. desanimar) We felt low spirited when we lost that game.
Vocês andam muito aborrecidos ultimamente. (v. aborrecer) You’ve been quite bored lately.