Intermediate B1

This intensive course is for language learners striving toward the B1 level.

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My suggestion* for these two weeks is to focus on:

  • perfeito vs. imperfeito / subjunctive mood intro
  • reading and listening comprehension
  • conversation

*There's always room to adjust the course according to the group's preferences:

After this course, you'll have come closer to the B1 level and have the tools and strategies to get there and beyond.

Not sure if you should enroll in the A2 or B1 course?

Clean Slate A0

Geared toward Absolute Beginners, this course gives you a solid start and foundation to build upon.

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This is an introductory course to the Portuguese language as spoken in Portugal. Throughout the course, we will focus on the Portuguese sound system and basic Portuguese grammar.

You will also learn how to introduce yourself and day-to-day, useful phrases. Finally, we will discuss learning resources and strategies to support your learning journey.

After the course, you will have a basic understanding of European Portuguese pronunciation and grammar. You will also be capable of engaging in simple, short oral interactions. Last but not least, you will be aware of a variety of learning resources and strategies to help you succeed at learning the language.

Portuguese short story for beginners - de maos dadas - Portuguesepedia
Easy Reads for Portuguese Lanugage Learners - Entre a Felicidade e a Tristeza - by Portuguesepedia

I will keep you updated on upcoming course seasons

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Where are you at? (1 Beginner–10 Fluent)

Beginners A2

This intensive course is for language learners striving toward the A2 level.

CEFR Scale

My suggestion* for these two weeks is to focus on:

  • prepositions
  • past tense: perfeito vs. imperfeito
  • listening comprehension and conversation

*There's always room to adjust the course according to the group's preferences:

After this course, you'll have come closer to the A2 level and have the tools and strategies to get there and beyond.

Not sure if you should enroll in the A2 or B1 course?

Beginners A1

This intensive course is for language learners striving toward the A1 level.

If you have just started your learning journey, you may find this course too challenging. Consider enrolling for the Clean Slate A0 instead (if available).

CEFR Scale

This is an all-round course, meaning that we’ll work on all aspects of language learning (at the A1 level):

  • pronunciation
  • listening comprehension
  • reading comprehension
  • conversation
  • grammar

After this course, you'll have come closer to the A1 level and have the tools and strategies to get there and beyond.

Not sure if you should enroll in the A1 or A2 course?

There are plenty of interesting options for our accommodation. It will most likely be a countryside house near Tavira.

I haven't booked it yet because I want to get a better idea of the group's composition (how many couples/singles) and your preferences before I do so. That will for instance help me understand how big a house we might need.

I look forward to soon talking to you about this and much more. Até breve, p

Where are you at? (1 Beginner–10 Fluent)

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Learn Portuguese through Short Stories

Portuguese Conjunctions – All You Need to Know

Without conjunctions, we would sound rather clumsy and inarticulate: I like apples. I like pears. I don’t like bananas. No one speaks like that. 

In avoiding the choppiness of several short sentences, conjunctions (aka linking words) allow us to express multiple ideas in elegant ways by sewing words, phrases, or clauses together. 

A few examples of Portuguese conjunctions are e, ou, mas, porque, quando, and se, among many others. Here’s a sentence containing some of these words:

Eu gosto de arroz e batatas, mas a Joana não aprecia nem um nem outro.
I like rice and potatoes, but Joana prefers neither one nor the other.

In what follows, I will walk you through different categories of Portuguese conjunctions. I will keep Portuguese and English conjunctions side by side so that you can easily follow along.

Notice! Conjunctions are invariable words. This means that their morphology remains the same regardless of things like gender or number. Learn more about how gender and number affect other word classes like adjectives or determiners:
Disentangling Gender with Portuguese Masculine-to-Feminine Spelling Patterns
Forming the Plural in Portuguese: Singular-to-Plural Conversion Patterns to Keep an Eye On

Coordinating conjunctions

Coordinating conjunctions link words, phrases, and clauses of identical grammatical rank in a sentence. Here’s an example of the latter:

Eu pinto uma paisagem e ela toca guitarra.
I paint a landscape and she plays guitar.

Notice that the clauses above are independent of each other and can therefore stand alone:

Eu pinto uma paisagem. Ela toca guitarra.
I paint a landscape. She plays guitar.

There are different kinds of coordinating conjunctions. Let’s take a closer look at them.


Copulative conjunctions add up words, phrases, or independent clauses. 

ConjunctionUsage example
A Cristina é alta e morena.
Cristina is tall and brunette. 
bem como, assim como
as well as
O Pedro assim como o Miguel gostam de matemática.
Pedro as well as Miguel likes math.
tanto . . . como, quer . . . quer
both . . . and
Tanto eu como a Daniela somos músicos.
Both Daniela and I are musicians.
não só . . .  mas também
not only . . . but also
Gosto não só do Brasil mas também de todos os outros países da América Latina.
I like not only Brazil but also all the other countries in Latin America.
nem . . . nem
neither . . . nor
Eu não tenho nem tempo nem paciência para isto.
I have neither time nor patience for this.


Adversative conjunctions express a contrast between two ideas or statements.

ConjunctionUsage example
but, though
Gosto de viajar, mas raramente o faço.
I like to travel, but I do it seldom.
porém, todavia, contudo
however, yet, nevertheless
O Mário esteve em Lisboa, contudo não me visitou.
Mário was in Lisbon, yet he didn’t come to see me.
enquanto que
Tu gostas de jazz enquanto que eu prefiro música clássica.
You like jazz whereas I prefer classical music.


Disjunctive conjunctions denote mutually exclusive possibilities.

ConjunctionUsage example
Vens ou ficas?
Are you coming or staying?
ou . . . ou
either . . . or
Ou estudas ou trabalhas. Decide-te!
Either you study or you work. Just make up your mind!
quer . . . quer não
whether . . . or not
Quer aceites quer não, ele não  vai mudar de ideias.
Whether you accept it or not, he won’t change his mind.


Conclusive conjunctions introduce a consequence or conclusion to the previously expressed idea.

ConjunctionUsage example
portanto, logo, por isso
therefore, thus, so
Eu gosto de música ao vivo, por isso vou a concertos com frequência.
I like live music, so I often go to concerts.

Subordinating conjunctions

Subordinating conjunctions link dependent clauses to independent clauses – a dependent clause, unlike an independent clause, can’t stand alone as its own sentence.

There are different types of subordinating conjunctions. Let’s take a peek at them.

Oftentimes, these conjunctions are followed by the subjunctive or personal infinitive. Learn more about it:
Present Subjunctive in Portuguese: How and When to Use It
Portuguese Personal Infinitive: What Is It and When to Use It


Causal conjunctions introduce the cause leading to what is expressed by the main clause.

ConjunctionUsage example
porque, pois
Cheguei atrasado porque apanhei trânsito na estrada.
I came late because I got stuck in a traffic jam.
visto que, uma vez que
Visto que fazes anos, vamos sair para festejar.
Since it’s your birthday, let’s go out to celebrate.
Como estava com fome, decidi almoçar mais cedo. 
As I was feeling hungry, I decided to eat lunch earlier.


Concessive conjunctions introduce an idea that is in opposition to what is expressed in the main clause.

ConjunctionUsage example
Gosto muito de Lisboa, embora lá vá raramente.
I like Lisbon a lot, although I go there rarely.
apesar de
despite, in spite of
Perdoo-te apesar do que me fizeste.
I forgive you despite what you’ve done to me.
ainda que, mesmo que
even if, even though
Ainda que tentes, não vais conseguir. 
Even if you try, you are not going to make it.
por mais que
as much as
Não me consegues ganhar por mais que queiras.
You can’t beat me as much as you’d like. 
nem que
not even if
Não comia isto nem que me pagassem.
I would not eat this even if someone would pay me.


Conditional conjunctions introduce a condition that the main clause depends on. 

ConjunctionUsage example
se, caso
Avisa-me se vieres cá.
Let me know if you come here.
desde que
provided that
Podes dormir no meu quarto desde que não ressones.
You can sleep in my room provided that you don’t snore.
a menos que, exceto se, salvo se, a não ser que
Ela vem viver connosco a não ser que mude de ideias. 
She’s coming to live with us unless she changes her mind.
Não falo contigo enquanto não me pedires desculpas.
I am not talking to you until you apologize.


Final conjunctions introduce the purpose of what’s expressed in the main clause. 

ConjunctionUsage example
para, a fim de
to, in order to
Vou dar uma volta para espairecer.
I will go for a stroll to unwind.
para que
so that
Põe os óculos para que possas ler as legendas.
Put on your glasses so that you can read the subtitles.


Temporal conjunctions provide the main clause with a time reference.

ConjunctionUsage example
Quando dei por ela, já era tarde.
When I saw it, it was already too late.
antes que
Cala-te antes que eu perca a paciência.
Be quiet, before I lose my temper.
depois de
Lava os dentes depois do jantar.
Brush your teeth after dinner. 
logo que, assim que, mal
as soon as
Avisa-me logo que chegues.
Let me know as soon as you arrive.
sempre que
Ajudo-te sempre que precises.
I’ll help you whenever you need it.
desde que
Sinto-me outro desde que vim para Portugal. 
I feel like a new person since I came to Portugal.
Fui ao supermercado enquanto as crianças não estavam em casa.
I went to the supermarket while the children were not at home.


Comparative conjunctions imply and articulate a comparison.

ConjunctionUsage example
Ele comporta-se como uma criança.
He behaves like a child.
come se
as if
Ele comporta-se como se fosse uma criança.
He behaves as if he were a child.
… do que
. . . than
Está mais quente este ano do que o ano passado.
This year has been hotter than the last.


Consecutive conjunctions introduce a consequence of what is expressed in the main clause.

ConjunctionUsage example
… de tal modo que, de tal maneira que
. . . in such a way that
Ele ficou chocado de tal modo que não conseguia falar.
He got shocked in such a way that he couldn’t say a word.


Integrating conjunctions link the main clause’s verb to its object.

ConjunctionUsage example
O Gabriel disse que vinha cá hoje.
Gabriel said that he would come today. 
Ela perguntou-me se podia passar cá a noite. 
She asked me if she could spend the night here.

Reading tips! What about Portuguese prepositions, have you already learned the basics? Here’s a read for you: Basic Portuguese Prepositions and Contractions: An Inclusive Usage Rundown.

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Break Free from the Tyranny of the Present Tense

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Where are you at? (1 Beginner–10 Fluent)