Geared toward Absolute Beginners, this course gives you a solid start and foundation to build upon. The language of instruction is almost entirely in English.
This is an introductory course to the Portuguese language as spoken in Portugal. Throughout the course, we will focus on the Portuguese sound system and basic Portuguese grammar.
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This intensive course is for language learners striving toward the A2 level. The language of instruction is English/Portuguese, typically in a 35/65 ratio.
Portuguese modal verbs are auxiliary verbs that allow us to express things like necessity, possibility, certainty, doubt, and ability. We use them all the time.
You’d agree that the English sentences You must studymore and You should study more imply different tones, namely one of obligation and guidance/advice respectively.
Like in English, Portuguese modal verbs refine the meaning of our words making our utterances more clear and precise.
Now, a good command of Portuguese modal verbs requires a reasonable level of familiarization with the language. For instance, the modal verb Poder may correspond to the English modals Can, Could, 또는 May. Can, on the other hand, can be expressed with the verbs Poder, Conseguir,or even Saber – it all hinges on the context and subtleties of tone.
Here’s a brief summary of the English Modals and their Portuguese counterparts. As you can see, this relation is far from being 1-to-1:
Poder, Conseguir, Dar
Ter que, Precisar de, Poder, Dever
Dever, Poder, (also the expressions talvez, se calhar)
In English, the modal verb can is used to either express possibility, permission, or ability. In Portuguese, we’ll be using poderto express possibility and permission, and conseguirto express the ability to do or achieve something.
Poder > there’s the possibility
To express possibility and permission, we’ll be using the auxiliary verb poder:
Here’re a few examples:
Se quiseres podemosir ao quarto para tomar um duche. If you want, we cango to our room and take a shower.
Posso fumar aqui? Can I smoke here?
Não podes fazer tudo o que queres. You can’t do everything you want.
Conseguir > there’s the ability to do or achieve something
To express ability, on the other hand, we’ll be using conseguir:
A few examples:
Conseguimosver o mar do quarto do hotel. We cansee the sea from the hotel room.
– Falta-te a faca, queres que te vá buscar uma? – Não importa, eu consigocomer só com o garfo. – You don’t have any knives. Should I fetch you one? – Nevermind, I caneat with just the fork.
Now, the verb conseguir has a narrower usage than poder and is specifically used to express ability. Being more flexible, the verb poder can often, but not always, replace conseguir:
(1) Adoro-te! Não me consigoimaginar sem ti. (2) Adoro-te! Não me possoimaginar sem ti. I love you! I can’timagine myself without you.
Tu sabias que ela não fala Inglês. Nãopodiasfalar Português? You knew she didn’t speak any English. Couldn’t you speak Portuguese?
Antigamente podia-se fumar nos restaurants. In the old days, you could smoke in restaurants.
Conseguir > there was the ability
To express ability in the past we will now be using conseguirconjugated in the imperfect tense:
Conseguir (pretérito imperfeito)
A few examples:
O meu irmão conseguiafalar cinco línguas. My brother couldspeak five languages.
Quando era novo conseguiasuster a respiração durante mais de dois minutos. When I was younger, I could hold my breath for more than two minutes.
Poder > there is a possibility ahead
Could is also used to talk about possible actions now or in the future (especially when making suggestions). In this case, we’ll continue to use poder in the imperfect tense:
– O que vamos fazer hoje à tarde? – Podíamos ir ao cinema. – What are we doing this afternoon? – We could go to the cinema.
– Quando vieres a Portugal no próximo mês podias ficar em minha casa. – When you come to Portugal next month, you could stay at my place.
You could, to be sure, use can in this same context – it just makes it sound less hypothetical. In that case, we, too, would switch poder over to the present tense:
– O que vamos fazer hoje à tarde? – Podemos ir ao cinema. – What are we doing this afternoon? – We can go to the cinema.
Poder > what would it be like?
Also, we use could to assert that something would be, or not, possible/acceptable under imaginary circumstances. In this case, we’d use poder in the imperfect tense:
Não podia trabalhar mais de 30 horas por semana. I couldn’t work more than 30 hours a week.
Nós também podíamos viver felizes no campo. I could also live happily in the countryside.
Poder > wishful thinking
Poder, like could, is used to express unrealistic things. Once more, we’ll be using poder in the imperfect tense:
Adoro Lisboa. Podia ficar lá a viver para sempre. I love Lisbon. I could stay there forever.
Este filme é o máximo. Podia vê-lo mil vezes. This movie is awesome. I could watch it a thousand times.
You’d also use could/poder to talk about unrealistic situations referring to the past:
Estava tão cansado que podia ter dormido durante uma semana inteira. I was so exhausted that I could have slept for a whole week.
As you see above, we’re using a verb structure that looks alike in Portuguese and English. Accordingly, there are two auxiliary verbs (poder/could in the past tense and ter/have in the infinitive) followed by the past participle * of the main verb.
Could and poder are also used to suggest that sudden changes, now or in the future, are possible. In this case, we’ll be using poder in the present tense:
Neste momento reina a paz, mas a guerra pode eclodir a qualquer momento. There is peace right now, but the war could break out anytime.
O tempo está bom agora mas pode mudar rapidamente. It is fair weather right now, but it could change quickly.
Must (have to)
We use must or have to to say that we need, or ought to, do something. Both expressions are often used interchangeably. Conversely, in Portuguese, we’ll be using the verb ter followed by the particle que.
Ter que (precisar de) > obligation (necessity)
Here’s what ter looks like:
A few examples:
Tenho que ir embora agora. I must leave now.
Tens que aceitar os factos. You have toaccept the facts.
In fact, you can say either ter que or ter de* – both variants mean exactly the same and are equally common. Here’s another example referring to the future:
Perdi o meu telemóvel. Vou ter de comprar um novo. I lost my mobile. I’ll have to buy a new one.
And now an example referring to the past:
O tempo era pouco, tivemos que nos despachar. We were short of time, so we had to hurry up.
As you could see, the structure ter que/de works well for both future and past. For the future, we’re using the auxiliary ir followed by the infinitive form of ter (equivalent to the English structure be going to). For the past, ter is being conjugated in the perfect tense (pretérito perfeito).
Poder vs ter que (precisar de) > mustn’t vs don’t have to
In English, mustn’t and don’t have to mean different things. Here’s what the Portuguese equivalents look like:
Vou-te dizer o meu segredo, mas não podes contar a ninguém. I will tell you my secret, but you mustn’t tell anyone.
Notice that we use poder, not ter que, to say that someone mustn’t do something. Let’s now look at the equivalent of don’t have to:
(1) Não tenho que te contar a minha vida, pois não? (2) Não preciso de contar a minha vida, pois não? (1) I don’t have to tell you about my life, do I? (2) I don’t need to tell you about my life, do I?
Notice that the two alternatives listed above represent subtle variations and mean nearly the same thing. Arguably, ter que expresses obligation, whereas precisar de expresses a need.
In the end, however, much depends on our tone, that is, how we say it. For the most part, they can be used interchangeably. You’d probably agree that the following examples are nearly perfect substitutes:
(1) Tenho que ir à casa de banho. (2) Preciso de ir à casa de banho. (1) I have to go to the restroom. (2) I need to go to the restroom.
Dever > with all likelihood
In English, we use must to say that we believe that something is certain. In Portuguese, we’ll often use the auxiliary dever:
Here’re a few examples:
Tu vais para Nova Iorque amanhã. Deves estar excitado. You are going to New York tomorrow. You must be excited.
A Joana deve ficar aborrecida com trabalho dela. É sempre o mesmo todos os dias. Joana must get bored with her job. She does exactly the same thing every day.
For the past, we’ll use a similar structure as English, that is, two auxiliary verbs followed by the main one:
– Não está ninguém em casa. – Devem ter saído. – There’s nobody at home. – They must have gone out.
As you can see, in both languages, the first auxiliary comes in the present tense, the second auxiliary in the infinitive, and the main verb in the past participle. Sometimes, however, we can simply use dever in the imperfect tense followed by the main verb in the infinitive:
– Nós vivíamos junto ao aeroporto. – Ai sim? Devia ser barulhento. – We used to live by the airport? – Did you? It must have been noisy.
In English, we use may or might to express mild probability, that is, to say that we believe something to be the case, though not without reservation. In this case, in Portuguese, we’ll be often using dever.
Dever > chances are…
A few examples:
– Sabes onde está a Rita? – Ele deve estar no quarto dela – Do you know where Rita is? – She might be in her room.
– O Gustavo deve ir embora hoje. – Gustavo may leave today.
In a few cases, however, the verb poder is a better fit. Compare the following nuances:
Pode ser verdade It may be true
Deve ser verdade It must be true
For the past:
– Acho estranho que o Paulo ainda não tenha chegado. – Pode ter adormecido. – I wonder why Paulo hasn’t arrived yet. – He might have overslept.
As you see, the Portuguese and English verb structures are analogous, that is, the two auxiliary verbs are followed by the main verb in the past participle.
Se calhar (talvez) > perhaps
What’s more, we use may or might to talk about possible happenings in the future coupled with a higher degree of uncertainty. In Portuguese, the most common way to go about it is to use the adverb se calhar (perhaps) followed by the main verb:
Se calhar vou ao Brasil de férias. Ainda não me decidi. (1) I may go to Brazil to spend my holidays. I haven’t decided yet. (2) Perhaps I will go to Brazil to spend my holidays …
You can, of course, use talvez instead of se calhar – they are synonyms. In that case, however, the main verb comes in the present tense of the subjunctive mode:
Talvez vá ao Brasil de férias. Ainda não me decidi. I might go to Brazil to spend my holidays. I haven’t decided yet.
Now, compare the previous examples with this one:
Devo ir ao Brasil de férias. Tenho quase a certeza. I mightgo to Brazil to spend my holidays. I am almost sure.
In this case, because the likelihood is higher than before, we’ve gone back to dever.
Pode ser que (talvez) > it depends …
Let’s now look at an example where might is used to express a possibility coupled with a conditional clause:
(1) Se ele pedir desculpa, talvez o perdoe. (2) Se ele pedir desculpa, pode ser que o perdoe. If he apologizes, I might forgive him.
Here we have two alternatives. In the first one, we’re using the adverb talvez followed by the main verb (subjunctive mood). In the second, though, we’re using the structure pode ser que (literally, it can be that ) plus the main verb (also in the subjunctive mood).
We use should either to give advice or to say that we expect something to happen. Let’s look at the Portuguese equivalents.
Dever > advice
In English, should is used when giving advice. In Portuguese, we’ll be using dever in the imperfect tense (pretérito imperfeito). Here’re a few examples:
Tu estás cansado, devias fazer uma pausa. You look tired, you should take a break.
– Achas que devíamos começar a ir para a cama mais cedo? – Sim, acho que devíamos. – Do you think we should start going to bed earlier? – Yes. I think we should.
Devias pedir desculpa. You should apologize.
Let’s now take a look at what it look likes for the past tense:
Perdeste um grande jantar ontem. Devias ter vindo. You missed a great dinner yesterday. You should have come.
Sinto-me um autêntico idiota. Não devia ter dito aquilo. I’m feeling like such an idiot. I shouldn’t have said those things.
As you see above, English and Portuguese use similar verb structures, that is, the two auxiliary verbs followed by the main verb in the past participle.
Dever > expectation
What’s more, in English, we use should to say that we expect something to happen. In Portuguese, we’ll be using dever in the present tense (presente):
O comboio deve chegar às 6 da tarde. The train should arrive at 6 pm.
A Paula deve ir embora amanhã à tarde. Paula should leave tomorrow afternoon.
Dever > not as it should
Finally, we use should to say that something is not quite right. In this case, we’re going to be using dever in the imperfect tense (pretérito imperfeito):
Este preço está errado. Deviam ser 23$. This price tag is wrong. It should be 23$.
Onde está o Pedro? Ele já devia cá estar. Where’s Pedro? He should be here by now.
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